Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/maafound/public_html/system/library/classes/dbclass.php on line 103
Career - Maafoundation.org
Maa Foundation
Tell A Friend Daily Digest Gujarati Portal
Tell A Friend Daily Digest Daily Digest
Home page Home About Us Page About Our Portal Projects Page About Us Affiliate With Us Projects Contact Us Our Events Careers Careers Contact Us FCRA Contact Us Yearly Planner Contact Us Corporate Brochure FCRA Contact Us
 
Engineering
Back
 
Eligibility and Course Duration Industry Size Industry Growth Individual Growth Best Colleges

10th science for Diploma courses, 10+2 science for graduation courses in engineering and B.E. for Master's in Engineering i.e. M.E.

Duration is 2-3 years for diploma course and 4 years for B.E.

40000cr. 20-30 %. Varies according to specialization. Most CEOs are engineers. Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)
 

Engineering means to find economical solution for technological problems and it has a vital role in the prevailing milieu. Engineers work starting from planning, designing, construction, production, testing, implementation and maintenance etc.Engineers work on scientific theories to get practical solutions.Engineering extends it's branches catering to industries, technology and business. A student is expected to graduate with a solid technical background that will enable him or her to contribute to finding solutions to the complex problems facing our nation. Professionals in this field are in great demand today and the demand keeps on burgeoning day by day.Engineering offers tremendous scope for employment depending upon the area of specialization. Apart from jobs in the private sector, engineers can find employment in the public sector as well. There are numerous opportunities for engineers in the computer software industry, too.

Engineers can join Defense services as commissioned officers. They have great demand in Civil Aviation Industry and Merchant Navy. Other opportunities include working as a Consultant in research / scientific organizations. Engineers with Post Graduate degree get senior position in private and government department or as a planner or advisor on basic infrastructure development of the industry. An engineer with entrepreneurship abilities can also set up his/her own enterprise

 
Aeronautical Engineering

Aeronautical / Aerospace Engineering is one of the most challenging fields of engineering with a wide scope for growth. This field deals with the development of new technology in the field of aviation, space exploration and defence systems. It specialises in the designing, construction, development, testing, operation and maintenance of both commercial and military aircraft, spacecrafts and their components as well as satellites and missiles.

As Aerospace engineering involves design and manufacture of very high technology systems, the job requires manual, technical as well as mechanical aptitude. Aeronautical engineer's usually work in teams under the supervision of senior engineers, bringing together their skills and technical expertise. Though highly paid, the work is very demanding. An aeronautical engineer needs to be physically fit and fully dedicated to his work. One needs to be alert, have an eye for detail and should have a high level of mathematical precision to be successful.

The specialisations includes in areas like structural design, navigational guidance and control systems, instrumentation and communication or production methods or it can be in a particular product such as military aircrafts, passenger planes, helicopters, satellites, rockets etc. Engineers may work in areas like design, development, maintenance as well as in the managerial and teaching posts in institutes. They find a very good demand in airlines, aircraft manufacturing units, air turbine production plants or design development programmes for the aviation industry. Aerospace environment is sophisticated with rewarding career opportunities involving leading-edge technology.

Eligibility & Course Area

To be an aeronautical engineer one should have a graduate degree (B.E/B.Tech.) or at least a diploma in Aeronautics. The degree and postgraduate degree courses are offered by the engineering colleges and Institutes of Technology (IITs), and the diploma courses are available at polytechnics.

The basic eligibility criteria for a BE / B.Tech is 10+2 or equivalent examination, with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics and must have a fairly high percentage of marks in the aggregate. One must also pass the qualifying exam JEE (Joint Entrance Exam) conducted by the IIT's.

Selection

Selection to the graduate courses ( BE / B.Tech ) is based on merit i.e the marks secured in the final exams of 10+2 and through entrance exams. Entrance to the IIT's is through 'JEE' (Joint Entrance Exam) and for other institutions through their own separate entrance exams and other state level and national level exams. Most of the institutes conducting engineering courses in Aeronautics consider JEE score as the qualifying grade.

There is also the Associate Membership Examination of the Institute of Engineers (AMIE), which enables working people in the private and public sector, or diploma holders to acquire a Bachelor's engineering degree through distance education by studying the syllabus and appearing for the Associate membership examination of the Institute of Engineers (AMIE) conducted by ASI ('The Aeronautical Society of India'). This degree is equivalent to aeronautical engineering degree. Those with a degree in electronics, mathematics or physics can also find opportunities in this area.

Some Institutes offer postgraduate (M Tech) and Doctoral (Ph D) programmes in Aeronautics. The Madras Institute of Technology offers a three year Graduate Programme in Aeronautical Engineering for B Sc students, subject to their having passed Maths and Physics at the graduation stage. The Indian Institute of Science (IIS), Bangalore has M Tech and Ph D programmes in aeronautics.

Duration

The duration is four years, ending with a degree recognised by the ministry of education, government of India. The diploma courses are of 2-3 years duration.

Personal Skills

Aeronautical engineers should have an eye for detail and be good at problem-solving. They need mathematical precision and design skills, computer skills, and the ability to communicate well. They also need good planning ability and a knack for working under pressure. An aeronautical engineer needs to be physically fit an may need to often work at great speed especially in checking and maintenance of aircrafts during turnarounds. They must have a normal colour vision.

Architecture

Architecture, the science of building, is the visualisation of building blocks. It is the area of study which deals with the designing and planning of buildings and structures and the spaces between them. Architecture is a highly competitive and multi-disciplinary profession which involves a variety of tasks at work. This is a field which covers various fields including spatial design, aesthetics, safety management, material management etc.

Architects are the licensed professionals trained in the art and science of building. They are involved in all the phases of the building construction i.e the functional, safety, economical and has to satisfy the needs of its occupants. They are responsible person for the planning, designing and supervision of construction works for houses, office buildings, skyscrapers, landscapes, and even entire cities. An Architect is a combination of artist, professional and businessperson. They ideates, sketches, makes blueprints of their designs and then sees them come to life as cottages, skyscrapers and even monuments. Apart from designing and construction, architects are trained in activities ranging from conceptual problem solving to project management.

One can rise to a successful position in the field through talent and hard work. Success in this competitive profession is measured by the size of responsibility entrusted to an individual, an invitation to partnership in a firm or, ideally, a well-established private practice.

Eligibility & Course Areas

A bachelor's degree in architecture (B.Arch) or Diploma in architecture is needed to become a qualified architect. For practical purposes there is no difference between the two qualifications.

The basic eligibility criteria for B.Arch is 10+2 (senior secondary Class XII) or equivalent referred to as the qualifying examination from a recognized Board/University with a minimum of 50% marks in Science subjects (Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics). Besides this, the candidate must qualify an entrance examination.

Entrance Tests

Admission to first year of Five years full time undergraduate course in Architecture (Bachelor of Architecture) in various colleges of India is through National and State level entrance examinations.

The CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education ) conducts a national level entrance examination- (AIEEE) on an All India basis for entry to undergraduate programmes in B. Architecture and B. Planning in government and private institutes. The paper consists of Mathematics, an Aptitude Test and a Drawing test. (NATA), the online test with drawing exam is conducted by the National Institute of Advanced Studies and Architecture in association with the Council of Architecture (COA). NATA scores are used by admissions authorities of different unaided & Government aided schools / colleges of Architecture, to provide common measures for comparing the qualifications of applicants. NATA measures aesthetic sensitivity, critical thinking, perception, observation and architectural awareness.

Entrance to architecture programmes at the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT's) is through the national level (JEE). Private institutes conduct entrance exams of their own. Different states also hold separate entrance exams for admission to architecture and engineering colleges in the state

Duration & Course Content

The B.Arch degree programme is of 5 years duration and includes a period of practical experience. The apprenticeship (usually for one semester) has to be done under a practicing architect. The B. Arch degree prepares the theoretical foundations and gives some practical insight on which a student later develops proficiency and functional accuracy.

Subject content of B.Arch course includes architectural design (drawing and painting), acoustics, surveying and leveling, estimating and costing, methods of construction, materials management, history of architecture, draftsmanship, environmental planning, applied mechanics, structural designing, computer applications etc. Some colleges teach architecture-related software packages such as AutoCAD and 3D Studio Max.

Apart from the degree course in B.Arch, Diploma in architecture are also available in some institutes as either full time or part time. It will take seven years to complete the part-time diploma courses.

After completing B.Arch, the candidates if they wish can go for post graduation i.e Master of Architecture (M.Arch.) which is of 2 to 3 semester duration. At the postgraduate level one can specialise in areas like construction management, town planning, interior design, naval architecture, landscape designing, building engineering and management etc.

Doctoral programmes (Ph.D) can be pursued after M.Arch or with a B.Arch plus five years experience in professional practice or teaching or research.

Personal Skills

A successful architect requires special qualifications like designing talent, business aptitude, social awareness and legal knowledge. They must have excellent communication and drawing skills, keen observation, vivid imagination, creativity, ideas and the ability to visualise. Other qualities includes leadership, managerial qualities, resourcefulness and ability to work as a team. They must also possess sufficient grasp of all aspects of building technology to be able to design for various needs under different conditions. Computer literacy also is required for writing specifications, two- and three-dimensional drafting, and financial management. Knowledge of CADD is essential.

Basic training makes an architecture graduate to design and execute any type of building or complex.

Civil Engineering

Considered as one of the oldest engineering disciplines, Civil Engineering involves planning, designing and executing structural works. The profession deals with a wide variety of engineering tasks including designing, supervision and construction activities of public works like roads, bridges, tunnels, buildings, airports, dams, water works, sewage systems, ports etc. and offers a multitude of challenging career opportunities.

A civil engineer is responsible for planning and designing a project, constructing the project to the required scale, and maintenance of the product. A civil engineer requires not only a high standard of engineering knowledge but also supervisory and administrative skills. The planning part of their work involves site investigation, feasibility studies, creating solutions to complications that may occur and the actual designing of structures. They have to work with the guidelines of the local government authority and get plans approved by the relevant authority. They may prepare cost estimates and set construction schedules. Construction work involves dealing with clients, architects, government officials, contactors and the supervision of work according to standards. Their work also involves the maintenance and repair of the project.

The major specialisations within civil engineering are structural, water resources, environmental, construction, transportation, geo-technical engineering etc. On most projects, civil engineers work in teams or in coordination with many other engineers. They can find work as a supervisor of a construction site or a managerial position or in design, research as well as teaching in government services or private concerns. They can also work as independent consultants.

Eligibility & Course Area

Educational

A bachelor's degree in Engineering is the minimum requirement to become a qualified civil engineer. A post graduate degree is required for research or teaching posts and an additional degree in business administration is desirable for management positions.

Engineering courses are available at two levels. There are the degree and postgraduate degree courses offered by the engineering colleges and Institutes of Technology (IITs), and, the diploma courses available at polytechnics. There is also the Associate Membership Examination of the Institute of Engineers (AMIE), which enables working people in the private and public sector, or diploma holders to acquire a Bachelor's engineering degree through distance education. IIT Chennai and Institute Of Post Graduate Studies And Research, Hyderabad gives MS courses in civil Engineering, through distance education, the basic qualification of which is BE/ B tech in engineering.

The basic eligibility criteria for a BE / B.Tech in Civil Engineering is 10+2 or equivalent examination, with high percentage of marks in Science subjects (Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics).

Selection

Selection to the graduate courses ( BE / B.Tech ) is based on merit i.e the marks secured in the final exams of 10+2 and through entrance exams. Entrance to the IIT's is through 'JEE' (Joint Entrance Exam) and for other institutions through their own separate entrance exams and other state level and national level exams. Apart from the IIT's, some other famous institutes also recognize JEE scores for selection. Selection to the postgraduate courses ( M.Sc / M.Tech) in different universities is through an 'All India Combined Entrance exam' conducted by JNU, New Delhi and to IIT's through 'GATE' in Two year/ 4 semester M.Tech courses and through JEE in five year integrated M.Tech courses.

Duration

BE/B.Tech courses are of 4 year's duration. The diploma courses are of 2-3 year's duration

Fees

In private colleges fees range from approx Rs.1 lakh to Rs. 2 lakh annually for a bachelors degree. In IIT's it varies between Rs. 15,000/- to Rs. 20,000/- per year.

Personal Skills

A civil engineer needs to have a sharp, analytical and practical mind and give attention to details. Excellent communication skills is a necessity and he should have the ability to get along at all levels, as part of a team. He should be good at organizing and solving problems. He may need to work under pressure and have the ability to keep calm during crisis.

He needs to know about surveying methods, environmental issues like whether the area is susceptible to tremors or has sandy soil etc, properties of building materials like its load bearing strength, resistance to fire and corrosion etc. Besides having a good technical designing knowledge conceptualising structures, they should be computer literate in order to use design, drawing and word processing software. Civil engineers need to know building and safety regulations, local authority and government regulations, acceptable standards for construction and how to draw plans.

Chemical Engineering

Over the years with the great expansion of scientific knowledge, the basis of applying science particularly chemistry to develop technology has increased tremendously. This has lead to the development of the profession of chemical Engineering.

Chemical Engineering involves the design and maintenance of chemical plants and the development of chemical processes for converting raw materials or chemicals into valuable forms including those to remove chemicals from waste materials, to enable large-scale manufacture. It combines knowledge of Chemistry and Engineering for the production of chemicals and related by-products. This branch of engineering is a varied field, covering areas from biotechnology and nanotechnology to mineral processing. It covers various fields of chemical technology in mineral based industries, petrochemical plants, pharmaceuticals, synthetic fibres, petroleum refining plants etc. Chemical engineers design and operate chemical plants and improve methods of production.

Chemical Engineering is the apt career for those who have an aptitude and interest to work with chemicals. However Chemical Engineering is different from chemical technology. The former is concerned with the designing, supervision, construction, installation and operation of plants and equipments for manufacturing chemical products and developing new methods of production while the latter deals with the actual production of substances with new properties which require new methods of production in the fields of petroleum refining, fertilizer technology, processing of food and agricultural products, paints and dyes; recycling metals, glass and plastics; cosmetics, mineral based industries and prevention and control of environmental hazards.

The work of Chemical Engineers, the most versatile of all engineers, involve the invention, development, design, operation and management of processes in industries. So they combine the work of several fields such as those of chemists, industrial engineers, materials engineers as well as electrical engineers. Chemical engineers are responsible for the availability of modern high-quality materials that are essential for running an industrial economy. They design equipments and operate chemical plants as well as determine the problems and find the best methods of production.

The scope for chemical engineers is tend to grow in future due to industrial expansion and the related scarcity of resources needed. They may be demand as they work to create synthetic replacements for those natural materials and resources that are in short supply. Overall chemical engineers could make very important contributions for the improvement and maintenance of the quality of life

Eligibility & Course Areas

To become a chemical engineer one should have a graduate degree (B.E / B.Tech) or postgraduate degree (M.E) in Chemical Engineering. There are both degree as well as diploma courses. One can go for the 3 year diploma course after the 10th standard (SSC).

The basic eligibility criteria for a BE / B.Tech is 10+2 or equivalent examination, with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics.

Duration

BE / B.Tech courses are of 4 years' duration.

Academic Programme

The focus of the BE/B.Tech programmes in Chemical Engineering is on Industrial Chemistry, Polymer Technology, Polymer Processing, Polymer Testing, Polymer Synthesis etc. The ME level course generally offers specialized training and research in the areas like computer aided plant design, petroleum refining, fertilizer technology, processing of food and agricultural products, synthetic food, petrochemicals, synthetic fibres, coal and mineral based industries etc.

Selection

Selection to the graduate courses ( BE / B.Tech ) is based on merit i.e the marks secured in the final exams of 10+2 and through entrance exams. Entrance to the IIT's is through JEEand for other major institutions through AIEEE(All India Engineering/ Architecture Entrance Examination) OR their own separate entrance exams and other state level and national level exams. There is also the AMIE (Associate Membership Examination of the Institute of Engineers) which enables working people in the private and public sector, or diploma holders to acquire a Bachelor's degree through distance education for career advancement.

Personal Skills

A successful chemical engineer must posses strong technical ability and high motivation. Excellent analytical, communication and teamwork skills is a necessity and the candidate should be hardworking, good at organizing and solving problems. It is also necessary to like working with tools, drawing sketches of complex things and operations, and conceptualising forms and structures. Good computer skill is also essential as they use computer technology to optimize all phases of research and production. As the knowledge and duties of chemical engineers overlap many fields, they must be aware of all aspects of chemicals manufacturing and how it affects the environment, the safety of workers and customers.

Industrial Engineering

Industrial engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment, energy, material and process. Industrial engineering draws upon the principles and methods of engineering analysis and synthesis. It eliminates waste of time, money, materials, energy and other resources. Industrial Engineering is also known as Operations management, Production Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering or Manufacturing Systems Engineering depending on the viewpoint or motives of the user. In healthcare Industrial Engineers are more commonly known as Management Engineers or Health Systems Engineers.

Whereas most engineering disciplines apply skills to very specific areas, industrial engineering is applied in virtually every industry, like shortening queues at a theme park, streamlining an operating room, distributing products worldwide, and manufacturing cheaper and more reliable automobiles. Even though the term industrial engineering is originally applied to manufacturing, it has extended it's service to similar fields like operations research, systems engineering, ergonomics and quality engineering

Eligibility & Course Areas

Educational

To become a production and industrial engineer one needs to do at least BE (Production and Industrial Engineering) of four years duration. A candidate who have passed his/her 10+2 or equivalent with science as a subject is eligible for admission to the Bachelor's Degree in Industrial Engineering. The method of selection include entrance test and interview. Some institutions offer admission on merit basis also. Industrial engineering is also taught as a special subject after BE mechanical / electrical.

For admissions to P G courses in Industrial Engineering/Management, candidates should have a Bachelor's Degree in any branch of engineering/technology (BE / BTech) or equivalent with first division. Some institutes are also offering admissions based on CAT/GATE score. The duration of PG Diploma in Industrial Engineering is 2 years, and selection is through GD & Interview.

The eligibility for admission to a Fellow Doctoral Programme (Ph. D. program) is a Master of Science degree in Industrial Engineering ME / MTech - Full Time course; 1st Class). NET qualifier can also apply. Method of selection include academic qualifications, work experience, seminar presentation and Interview; in fact it is based on the applicants total academic and professional achievements.

Personal skills

The individual should be creative, inquisitive, analytical, and detail-oriented, and able to work in a team and communicate well, both orally and in writing. A strong base in computer applications is an important element of the course, which facilitates component production, process planning, production planning, etc.

Electronics Engineering

Electronics Engineering is one of the largest and fastest growing industries. It covers a wide range of applications we use daily and which make our life easier and enjoyable such as Television, Radio, computers, telecommunication etc. They helps us to see, hear and communicate over vast distances and do things faster. Electronics has a major role in improving productivity in industries like oil, energy, agriculture and so many other important sectors of economy. In steel, petroleum and chemical industries it is the electronic devices that direct, control and test production processes. Health care industry depend on electronic instruments to perform chemical tests and to check body functions. The safety in transportation, factories and mines and in homes rely heavily on electronics. The uses are endless.

An Electronics engineer must find new solutions to the practical problems affecting our daily lives. An electronics engineer will work in team with other specialists to design, fabricate, produce, test and supervise the manufacture of complex products and systems i.e electronic equipments and components for a number of industries including hospitals, computer industry, electronic data processing systems for communication and in defense etc. They supervise production and manufacturing processes and oversee installation and maintenance. Electronics engineers work with devices that use extremely small amounts of power. They work with microprocessors, fibre optics, and in telecommunication, television, radio etc.

Electronics engineering is a constantly changing and widening branch of the engineering profession. Electronics industry being a labour intensive industry provides many job opportunities for the skilled job seekers. Increased production and demand by government and businesses for communication equipment, computers and military electronics along with consumer demand and increased research and development on robots and other types of automation contributes to the growth of employment opportunities in the field. Candidates having a creative and inventive mind and also are good at physics and mathematics will probably find electronics engineering a challenging and lucrative career.

Eligibility & Course Areas

Educational

To become an electronics engineer one needs to have a degree in electronics engineering (BE / B.Tech) or must have passed the AMIE (Associate Membership Examination of the Institute of Engineers) in electronics or Graduate membership Examination of the Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers or at least a diploma in Electronics Engineering. A post graduate degree is required for most research or teaching posts and management positions. An additional degree in business administration is desirable for those seeking administrative or management positions.

The basic eligibility criteria for a BE / B.Tech is 10+2 or equivalent examination, with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics. Admission to these courses is highly competitive and only those with high academic performance in the board of examination i.e the marks secured in the final exams of 10+2 and in the entrance test can expect admission. Entrance to the IIT's is through JEE and for other major institutions through AIEEE (All India Engineering/Pharmacy/Architecture Entrance Examination) OR their own separate entrance exams and other state level and national level exams.

Duration

The duration is 4 Years for BE / B.Tech courses. The diploma courses in polytechnics are of 3 years duration.

The focus in the study programme is on understanding electronic networks and devices, electromagnetic field theory, computer fundamentals, as also their protection, and communication and control systems.

Personal Attributes

A creative and inventive mind and an interest in physics and mathematics is essential to take up this challenging career. They should have good analytical skills, an eye for detail, sustained attention and the ability to work as part of a team. They should also have good communication skills.

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering (GE) is a highly complicated and advanced branch of science which involves a wide range of techniques used in changing the genetic material in the DNA code in a living organism. 'Genetic Engineering' means the deliberate modification of the characters of an organism by the manipulation of its genetic material. Genetic engineering comes under the broad heading of Biotechnology. There is a great scope in this field as the demand for genetic engineers are growing in India as well as abroad.

A cell is the smallest living unit, the basic structural and functional unit of all living matter, whether a plant, an animal, humans or a fungus. While some organisms are single celled, others like plants, animals, humans etc are made up of a lot more cells. For eg humans have approximately 3 million cells. A cell is composed of a 'cell membrane' enclosing the whole cell, many 'organelles' equivalent to the organs in the body and a 'nucleus' which is the command centre of the cell. Inside the nucleus are the chromosomes which is the storage place for all genetic (hereditary) information which determines the nature and characteristics of an organism. This information is written along the thin thread, called DNA, a nucleic acid which constitutes the genes (units of heredity). The DNA governs cell growth and is responsible for the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next.

Genetic engineering aims to re-arrange the sequence of DNA in gene using artificial methods. The work of a genetic engineer involves extracting the DNA out of one organism, changing it using chemicals or radiation and subsequently putting it back into the same or a different organism. For eg: genes and segments of DNA from one species is taken and put into another species. They also study how traits and characteristics are transmitted through the generations, and how genetic disorders are caused. Their research involves researching the causes and discovering potential cures if any.

Genetic engineering have specialisations related to plants, animals and human beings. Genetic engineering in plants and animals may be to improve certain natural characteristics of value, to increase resistance to disease or damage and to develop new characteristics etc. It is used to change the colour, size, texture etc of plants otherwise known as GM (Genetically Modified) foods. GE in humans can be to correct severe hereditary defects by introducing normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones.

Eligibility & Course Areas

Educational

A qualified genetic engineer, must have a graduate / postgraduate degree in genetics or related fields such as biotechnology, molecular biology, microbiology or biochemistry OR a doctorate (PhD) from a recognised university, based on 2-3 years of his own research under the guidance of a professor/lecturer.

The basic eligibility criteria for a graduate degree (BE / B.Tech) is 10+2 or equivalent examination, with Biology, Chemistry and Mathematics as well as genetics as part of the biology OR a bachelors degree in science or molecular biology.

Most institutes do not offer courses in Genetic Engineering as a special discipline but as a subsidiary in biotechnology, microbiology, biochemistry streams. Undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Biotechnology offer specialisation in genetic engineering.

Selection to the graduate courses ( BE / B.Tech ) is based on merit i.e the marks secured in the final exams of 10+2 and through entrance exams. Entrance to the IIT's is through JEE (Joint Entrance Exam) and for other institutions through their own separate entrance exams and other state level and national level exams. Apart from the IIT's, some other famous institutes also recognize JEE scores for selection. Selection to the postgraduate courses ( M.Sc / M.Tech) in different universities is through an All India Combined Entrance exam conducted by JNU, New Delhi and to IIT's through GATE in Two year/ 4 semester M.Tech courses and through JEE in five year integrated M.Tech courses in Biochemical engineering and Biotechnology.

Personal Attributes

To be a successful genetic engineer, one must have sharp analytical mind, an aptitude for research, high levels of concentration, eye for details, lively imagination, abundant physical stamina to put in long hours of work, ability to work as a team, moreover he should have a sound moral sense.

Mechanical engineering

Mechanical engineering, the broadest of all Engineering disciplines deals with design and production of tools, machines and all other mechanical equipment to be used in industries. The industry offers a wide choice of options extending across many interdisciplinary interdependent specialties. Mechanical engineering is concerned with all types of machinery in industries and all aspects of their mechanism and functioning; the design, development, construction, production, installation, operation and maintenance; such as large steam and gas turbines, components of thermal power stations, internal combustion engines, jet engines, machine tools, air conditioning and heating machines, refrigerators etc to name a few. They not only design and create new products, but also develop materials for them and ways of making them.

In a way, mechanical engineers are involved in creating the future. They are the driving force behind many of our technologies and industrial processes including innovative products like mobiles, PCs and DVD etc in our modern world. The work of a Mechanical Engineer can be extremely challenging and fulfilling, requiring IT, design and analytical skills together with an ability to work as a team. As their work involves production, transmission and use of mechanical power and heat, they have to analyse the different materials used for the machines and their tolerances, investigate the different energy sources and the power they generate and the design problems if any. When designing and making a commercial product they have to take into account all the business and marketing aspects to make sure that the product is affordable. They share interests with many other engineers like Civil Engineers in structures and stress analysis; Electrical engineers in electronics, computing and control theory; Aeronautical Engineers in fluid flow and turbomachinery etc and also design tools needed by other engineers for their work. They work as part of a team with other engineers as well as financial, business and management professionals on a project together. Mechanical Engineers are also responsible for maintenance and repair of the devices. Care has to be taken that the plants give maximum output and the machinery is properly maintained.

The specialisations include in areas like thermal engineering, design, and production engineering etc. Mechanical engineers work mainly in manufacturing firms. They can find work in administrative and managerial positions in government departments or public and private sector industries or do research as well as teaching in Research and teaching institutes. They could also opt for technical sales / marketing or work as independent consultants.

Eligibility & Course Areas

To become a mechanical engineer one should have a graduate degree (B.E / B.Tech) or postgraduate degree (M.E) or at least a diploma in mechanical Engineering.

The basic eligibility criteria for a BE / B.Tech is 10+2 or equivalent examination, with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics. After the bachelor's one can go in for a post graduate degree. The postgraduate course generally offers specialized training in thermal engineering, design, and production engineering. Post graduate degrees are essential for most teaching posts and positions in management and an additional degree in business administration is desirable for management positions. There is also the Associate Membership Examination of the Institute of Engineers (AMIE), which enables working people in the private and public sector, or diploma holders to acquire a Bachelor's engineering degree through distance education. A three year BEng degree course entitled Mechanical Engineering is also available. This course is also accredited with the Institution of Mechanical Engineers for Chartered Engineer status.

Selection

Selection to the graduate courses ( BE / B.Tech ) is based on merit i.e the marks secured in the final exams of 10+2 and through entrance exams. Entrance to the IIT's is through JEE and for other major institutions through AIEEE (All India Engineering/Pharmacy/Architecture Entrance Examination) OR their own separate entrance exams and other state level and national level exams.

Duration

BE / B.Tech courses are of 4 years' duration. The diploma courses in polytechnics are of 2-3 years' duration.

Fees

In private colleges fees range from approx Rs.1 lakh to Rs. 2 lakh annually for abachelors degree. In IIT's it varies between Rs. 15,000/- to Rs. 20,000/- per year.

Personal Skills

Mechanical engineering technicians need to have excellent mechanical engineering skills, as well as technical drawing and computer skills for designing machines and equipment. It requires IT, design and analytical skills together with an ability to conceptualize structures. They must have numeric skills as math's is an important tool, an inquisitive and logical mind to make connections between ideas and handle abstract concepts, creative and innovative ideas to find solutions to problems which may need a new perspective, good practical skills to apply math's and science to real problems. Organising ability, practicality, ability to get on well with people of all types, ability to keep calm under pressure and flexibly to work in a multi disciplinary area are an asset in the field.

Related career
Back